Volume X, Number 2; February 1998
Newsletter of the Boston Amateur Radio Club
A Special Service Club of the ARRL

February Meeting

This month's general meeting will be held at the Volpe Transportation Center, 55 Broadway, Cambridge, at 7:30 PM, February 18. Our speaker will be Tom Kinahan, N1CPE, who will speak on APRS.

The Volpe Center is across the street from the Kendell Square Red Line T Station, at the corner of Broadway and Third Street. Parking is available along Potter Street. Enter the building on the Third Street side, and sign in with the guard at the desk. Talk-in is on 145.23.

QNC de Mike Ardai, N1IST

Thanks to everyone who responded to my email question last month. I got no responses to the SPARC question, and only one on the web; for a club of hams, we are doing a poor job of communicating. Common requests included a CW practice session on 2M after the BARC net, and a need for a club shack with something like Ham 101 again. I'm currently working on the former, building the MCW generator in last month's QST. If anyone has any locations, please let us know.

BARC will soon need to find a new location for the monthly General meetings. Our sponsor at Volpe will be retiring, and also the monthly fee that we must pay for the security detail is really hurting us. If you have any contacts at a site where we can hold our meetings, please get in touch with me. Our requirements are:

We have some upcoming events that we desperately need help with. Please assist us in making BARC a successful club. These include:

I hate to keep shouting "We Need Help" here in my columns, but we do. I guess everyone must be satisfied with what BARC is doing...


Hams Needed for Walk for Hunger

Amateur radio operators are urgently needed to provide communications for Project Bread's Walk for Hunger. The walk is on Sunday May 3rd. Volunteers are needed for all locations and all shifts.

If you are willing and able to help, please contact Bruce Pigott, KC1US by March 15th: or
PO Box 200
Bedford, MA 01730-0200

The Latest on the BARC Emergency Response Team
By Bill Ricker N1VUX

Ed Berg, N1VSJ, has accepted the role of BARC ERT Leader/ Emergency Coordinator. Mike N1YER had to step down to an assistant position due to other commitments. Ed will be ably assisted by KA1TUZ, N1YER, N1IST, N1VUX/DEC, and N1XBR.

Mike has uploaded the badge pictures from the camera to a computer, and is trying to figure out how the robotic merge with the scanned ID card will work. If this doesn't work, we'll use paper and scissors. I hope to have them for the next General Meeting. If need be, Ed or I will sign them with permanent ink on the outside!

The Section ARES staff is working on a training class; we're due to present a trial run to the section staff at the end of the month. We'll schedule BARC-ERT as one of our earlier classes, probably 2 hours on a Saturday, probably at NU (free parking & T), probably in March on April. Look for an announcement in then March SPARC.

There will be more training coming in the summer; we're looking for suitable moderate and advanced topics; possibilities include Damage Assessment, First Aid, and Net Control Procedures.

Note that there will not be SKYWARN training in Boston this year; there will be training on Rt.128 and on Rt. 495 in several directions.

In the meantime, things you can do:

Volunteer for one of the upcoming public service events. Your ERT leader, N1VSJ, is coordinating one of them, and the club PSE coordinator Bob WA1IDA, is coordinating several including the Marathon (which requires some prior public service experience) and the Assistive Technology fair (great shadow opportunity, but on a Friday - retired people please help!).

For details, see: and

When the BARC net has Net Control 101 after, join the crew and practice formal net procedures. Then volunteer for BARC Net control for a couple turns.

Check into an NTS net (145.23 8pm, 146.64 10:30pm daily, others further out) periodically.

Read the ARRL Public Safety Communications Manual and/or Operations Manual sections on ARES and NTS. Available online at Recruit friends in ham radio for BARC, BARC-ERT, or get them to come to meetings.

On the Boston METRO ARES side, I'm hoping to involve some of the college clubs (for folks who are more flexible hours than us workaday folks) and non-club neighborhood hams (as deep-bench reserves). Anyone who lives "in the city" (Boston, Cambridge, Somerville) who'd like help organize a neighborhood coffee for hams in the callbook, contact me directly.

More Public Service Events Need Your Help

We have a growing calendar of events where we hams can serve the public. These are also the opportunities for us to gain experience and to sharpen our skills when there aren't many disasters to work on. Over 140 hams are needed for the Boston Marathon, but all ham volunteers for this event must have prior experience with public service and/or emergency duty. We encourage you to participate in other events to gain this experience (and be able to help at the Marathon).

These events will generally be announced in The SPARC shortly before the need for communicators arises. Most of these events are planned for weekends. However, some are held in midweek or need large numbers of hams. These may be announced well in advance to intensify the recruiting. Please volunteer whenever you can - it's a fun learning time.

Looking well ahead, hams will be needed for the following events:

Until the specific Recruiting Coordinators can be assigned, contact Bob Salow, WA1IDA, to volunteer or to get more information. Call him at 508.650.9440, or by email at

The 145.23 Repeater
Michael Ardai, N1IST

We all use the repeater. But what is it? How does it work? And what does it mean by saying "one" every hour?

Block diagram of the repeater

A repeater is a box that sits at some high location, listens to one frequency and retransmits whatever it hears on another one. Since it's up high, it can see users over a large area (remember that VHF and above is primarily line-of-sight) and since it is plugged into the wall, it can transmit with much more power than a little HT could.

Our repeater listens on 144.63 MHz, and transmits on 145.23 MHz; it puts out about 40W into an antenna is about 600' up in the air. The repeater is about 15 feet below that, sharing a room with 8 other repeaters and remote bases. We've got emergency power, supplied by the Federal Reserve's backup generator, so we will stay on the air if the power goes out, with just a brief drop until their power comes on line.

So what's in the box? A basic repeater has a receiver, a transmitter, a controller that sits between the two and handles things like the timeout timer and sending the repeater's ID, and antennas. In our case, a duplexer (tuned cavity filter) lets us transmit and receive on one antenna at the same time. There is also a control receiver, since according to FCC rules, we must be able to remotely shut off the repeater, and if done using a ham frequency, must be above 220 MHz.

The W1BOS repeater uses a microprocessor-based CAT-1000 controller with a programming book a good half inch thick. It lets us do voice announcements ("Club Net Tonight at Nine P M" and "W1BOS Repeater") timed messages ("Club net..." comes on automatically on Mondays between 6PM and 9PM except during the traffic net) and different `personalities' (Normal operation, net mode, Skywarn announcements).

The "one" that we hear every hour is a programming error; it should be saying message number one, "W1BOS repeater", but instead it is saying "one". That should be fixed shortly.

The RF hardware is all commercial Motorola gear, including a Micor repeater with a Station Master antenna, and a SpectraTAC control receiver, with a Diamond antenna.

See the BARC web site for pictures.

The picture shows the RF side of the machine. From top to bottom:

Picture of the RF side of the repeater

Power amp, transmitter, receiver, squelch and PL decoder, control receiver, and 12- volt supply. The controller sits on the other side of the rack, and the cans on the bottom. The screwdriver in the foreground is resting on WN9T's 447.175 repeater.

February General Meeting

This month's general meeting will be held at the Volpe Transportation Center, 55 Broadway, Cambridge, at 7:30 PM, February 18. Our speaker will be Tom Kinahan, N1CPE, who will speak on APRS.

The Volpe Center is across the street from the Kendell Square Red Line T Station, at the corner of Broadway and Third Street. Parking is available along Potter Street. Enter the building on the Third Street side, and sign in with the guard at the desk. Talk-in is on 145.23.

BARC Growth and/or Vanity

It's a rare month when we fail to add a few new members. We publish the names of new members periodically. Please make a special welcome for the following new (or long lost) BARC members:

With the FCC "vanity" call sign program under way, it's possible to have a number of changes in our ranks. If you have upgraded and/or changed your call sign, please promptly notify the Keeper of the Database, Bob Salow, WA1IDA, by phone at 508.650.9440 or by e-mail at:

We Need Your Numbers

The two new area codes have been activated in Eastern Massachusetts with 617, 781, 508, and 978 now required. When you renew your membership, please be certain to show the correct area code on the membership form.

Now we hear that the US Postal Service will juggle Zip Codes for some communities in Eastern Massachusetts. This is even more critical to BARC. After implementation, incorrect Zip Codes not only may delay your mail, but address correction notices are costly to the club. If you are affected, as soon as the final changes are announced please notify the Keeper of the Database, at 508.650.9440 or

On a related subject, our postage costs can be reduced if we have your complete nine- digit Zip Code. If you don't have it on the tip of your pencil, check the label of almost any magazine you subscribe to - it should be on their address label.

FM Simplex Frequently Asked Questions
Paul Carter N1TMF

What is FM Simplex?

FM Simplex is a direct voice contact between two or more radio stations using the FM mode, both stations transmitting and receiving on the same frequency. This is in contrast to FM repeater operation, in which two or more stations are in contact through an intermediate station - the repeater.

Why should I care about FM simplex, aren't repeaters good enough?

Repeaters are fine for their intended purpose, allowing stations using portable radios to be in contact when direct contact is impossible due to distance and/or terrain. Sometimes repeaters are heavily used, and long (or even short) conversations on them are inconsiderate or impractical. Using a simplex frequency, stations that can be in direct contact need not use a repeater that may be needed by stations that can't contact each other any other way.

Many people also find technical and operational challenge in FM simplex. Using an in-range repeater takes the least effort of any amateur radio activity - which, of course, helps explain its popularity! Making unaided contacts can require more out of your equipment and radio skills. It is a way for any amateur to get a taste of what some call "real ham radio.", do I need expensive equipment or a high class license?

No Sir! Any licensed amateur has access to some bands in which FM simplex is usable. Technician and above classes of course have the whole VHF/UHF spectrum available. Even Novices have privileges in the 125cm and 23cm bands in which FM simplex takes place. Expensive equipment? Your trusty HT or mobile rig are ready and able to do the job!

Where on the bands does FM Simplex take place?

2M is (naturally!) the most popular band. The calling frequency is 145.52, and other simplex frequencies are: 146.415, 146.430, 146.445, 146.460, 146.475, 146.490, 146.505, 146.535, 146.550, 146.565, 146.580, 146.595, 147.420, 147.435, 147.450, 147.465, 147.480, 147.495, 147.510, 147.525, 147.540, 147.555, 147.570, 147.585.
(in some areas, some of these frequencies can be repeater inputs/outputs - check before you transmit!)

On 125cm, the calling frequency is 223.50, and other frequencies are 223.42, 223.44, 223.46, 223.48. (These frequencies may be used for packet - again, listen and check.)

On 70cm, the calling frequency is 446.00. Other frequencies are in 15kHz steps up and down from the calling frequency for "several hundred kHz." Due to lesser activity on this band, sticking close to 446.00 is best.

On 23cm, the calling frequency is 1294.50; other channels go from 1294 to 1295 in 25kHz steps. Some locals use 1296.25 - be careful about this, as it is reserved for EME in the ARRL band plan.

On 6M, the calling frequency is 52.525, other channels being 52.54, and 53.00.

On 10M (for General and above class,) the calling frequency is 29.600.

How do I operate on simplex, and what is a calling frequency?

First, set up your radio for simplex. Refer to your manual for details, but in general, you must have frequency offsets and receive PL tone squelch turned off (transmitting a PL tone is harmless.)

Then, tune your radio to a calling frequency. As with repeaters, listen for a minute to make sure you won't be interfering with a contact in progress. Then, ask "Is this frequency in use, this is YOUR CALL." This is important, as a conversation may be in progress with one station being inaudible to you. If so, the other station will let you know about it! If all is clear, then call. Some people say "This is YOUR CALL listening", others say "CQ CQ, this is YOUR CALL. Call according to your taste.

If another station returns your call, acknowledge them, and invite them to move to another frequency to continue the contact. The calling frequency is for the purpose of initiating a contact; it is poor form to have a long conversation on it, keeping other people from using it to initiate their contacts. (Although this is somewhat less critical on the higher bands where activity is less.) As with repeater operations, every now and then drop it for a few seconds to let breakers in.

What range can I expect?

Usually line of sight, plus a little. For stations using HTs indoors, a mile or two is normal. Using a roof or treetop antenna or a mobile rig in normal terrain, 5 to 10 miles is routine. Some people use directive and steerable beam antennas, which can multiply range by several times. There are unusual propagation conditions that can greatly enhance range. Transmitting from a high place can also make simplex shine!

What antennas can I use?

Anything that is vertically polarized, which can mean the rubber ducky or gain antenna on your HT, a car or rooftop vertical, or a vertically polarized directive beam - such as a Yagi or Quad. Simple verticals have the advantage of being omnidirectional - good for random contacts or multiperson conversations. A directive beam lets you select the direction you transmit and receive, increasing your effectiveness in that direction. On the VHF/UHF bands, excellently performing antennas can be quite small. Hams having modest design and construction skills can make their own antennas and save some money.

What is "unusual propagation?"

For 2M and above, this is usually what is called "tropospheric ducting." This takes place during a temperature inversion, or in the vicinity of a stalled high-pressure center. Layers of air in the troposphere can conduct VHF/UHF radiation for long distances, as if travelling in a duct. Thousand mile "tropo" contacts are not exceptional, especially during summer months. For 6M and 10M, another long distance propagation is "Sporadic E", when clouds of metallic ions form a highly diffractive layer about 70 miles up. They provide strong contacts for up to 1500 miles, but come and go quickly and without warning. They are most common during June and December. Although at the peak of sunspot cycles, F layer propagation can provide worldwide communications on 10M and 6M, FM is usually too badly distorted to be useful.

Higher up is better, you say? And what is this thing called "hilltopping?"

Since normally, VHF/UHF contacts are line of sight, the higher you are, the further you (and your signal) can see. This can be as simple as going to the top floor of your house or workplace. People have been known to take ham radios into airplanes and spacecraft and get truly impressive ranges! Hilltopping is where you take your radio with you on some scenic trip to the top of a hill or mountain. From the top of Mt. Wachusett, for example, you can expect to work 50 miles simplex with 5 watts and a wave antenna on your HT. The more dedicated (read eccentric) hilltoppers install directive beams on their cars, or backpack beam antennas and tripods that can be quickly assembled (one company produces a 2M 3 element yagi that can be broken down and stored inside a walking stick!) Using 50 watts and a modest beam from Wachusett, you can expect 100-mile simplex contacts.

Can you participate in contests, or qualify for awards using FM simplex?

You bet! FM simplex is a permissible and commonly used mode in VHF/UHF contests such as the ARRL's January, June, and September VHF QSO Parties and the August UHF Contest. Use of repeaters in these contests is prohibited. Look in the Contest Corral section of QST for rules and dates of these contests and join in, even if just for an hour. Just remember that contacts cannot be made on the 146.52 calling frequency. The rules for the ARRL contests can be read as prohibiting contest contacts on all calling frequencies; in practice, most contacts on 125cm, 70cm and 23cm will be on the calling frequency. I've never heard of any disqualification resulting from that practice. Awards such as the ARRL's VUCC are given by making the right number and kinds of VHF/UHF contacts, including FM simplex.

What are these grid-squares I hear contesters talking about?

To the VHF/UHF operator, the world is made of 2 degree longitude by 1 degree latitude rectangles (ok, they're not really rectangles, being on the surface of a sphere!) called grid-squares. Grid squares are given as two letters followed by two digits. For example, Boston is in FN42. During contests, the grid square of each party in a contact is given, and extra points are had by contacting stations in extra grid squares. The VUCC award is given to an amateur who can prove (by QSL cards received) contacts with stations in, for example, 100 different grid-squares on 2M. (This is hard, but not impossible to achieve.) Refer to ARRL publications on VHF/UHF for more information. If you get to the point of exchanging QSL cards, write or print your grid square or the card will be useless to the recipient! Make yourself heard from a rare grid square (one containing few hams) and you will attract attention! FN51, which contains the eastern fringe of Cape Cod and Martha's Vineyard, is quite rare.

I've heard of people doing simplex on the output frequency of a repeater. Isn't this naughty?

Yes. Also, it can be frustrating, as you will be contending with the repeater, which will likely have more power and a better antenna location than you and your friend. Remember that in FM, the strongest signal wins! Everyone will be happier if you take it to a recognized simplex frequency. Some folks from the same club attending distant hamfests together may use the output frequency of their machine on simplex as a "private channel." If you are using low power, rubber "dummy load" antennas and are far away from the machine (and others using the same frequency!) then this is harmless.

And people working simplex on the input frequency of a repeater?

Marvelous! They're using two frequencies at once, and only listening on one, heedless of the havoc they are wreaking on the repeater. Such people should expect a not so friendly visit from the local interference committee, and no sympathy from your humble author.

I like working simplex but I want more range. Will high power help?

Probably not. With no special propagation, 50 watts will work anything within line of sight. More power will just be wasted power. Experience with tropo and sporadic E doesn't indicate much advantage for stations running over 150 watts. High power is needed for such exotic VHF/UHF modes like meteor scatter, forward tropospheric scatter and moon bounce. But FM doesn't work with such modes. The best way to get more range is to use a better antenna and get it higher up, putting the "gain in the metal." It will improve your reception also. After all, if you're talking to someone, don't you want to hear them?

What is the wilderness protocol?

The Wilderness protocol is an ARRL proposal to provide emergency communications through hams in locations remote from a repeater. Hams in the backcountry are asked to announce their presence on and monitor a FM simplex frequency for five minutes at the top of the hour every three hours from 7AM to 7PM. The proposed frequencies are the calling frequencies for the 6M, 2M, 125cm, 70cm and 23cm bands.

Editor's Notes

My article on FM simplex above should be enough from me for one month! Hope to hear you on 146.52, 446.00, or (drool!) 1294.50 real soon!

I'm grateful to all that sent contributions and suggestions for improvement - keep those cards and letters coming in. I can be reached by email at , snail mail at 11 Commonwealth Court Apt#15, Brighton, MA 02135, and most if not all BARC club nets and general meetings.

Got A Question?

I'm thinking of picking up a Yaesu FT-50RD (high power version possibly) and a few of its accessories, such as the ADMS-1D software. I have the MH29A2B speaker/mic w/display for my Yaesu FT-530. Will this work with the 50RD?

The FT-50RD is appealing for its exceptional wide-band, size, and alphanumeric capability.

What are people's opinions of this transceiver? I hope to have it modified to receive as widely as possible. How is the sensitivity and interference with respect to its open receive?

Scott Ehrlich WY1Z

I See the Future
Events Ahead

14 FebAARC Flea (Marlboro)
1 MarMt Tom ARA Flea (Northampton)
14 MarMARC Auction (Gardner)
21 MarInterstate RS Flea (Hudson NH)
29 MarMultiple Sclerosis Walk
5 AprFramingham ARA Flea
18 JulNE Antique RC Flea (Nashua NH)
19 AprMIT Flea
21 AprBoston Marathon (r)
8-9 MayHoss Traders Flea (Rochester NH)
16 MayRIAFMRS Flea (Forestdale RI)
17 MayMIT Flea
29 MayAssistive Technology Conference
21 JunMIT Flea
18 JulNE Antique RC Flea (Nashua NH)
19 JulMIT Flea
16 AugMIT Flea
28-30 AugARRL NE Div Convention (Boxboro)
2-3 OctHoss Traders Flea (Rochester NH)

As you might expect, there are many more events (public service, hamfests, flea markets, etc.) taking place - some only peripheral to ham radio. For information on these, covering New England and some of New York, the "Ham - Electronic Flea Market" and the "PSLIST" lists tell the story. They are posted by e-mail to barc-list and on PBBSs regularly. If needed, contact any club member who has access to these.

Eastern Mass Public Safety Net

The EMA Public Safety Net will be held every Tuesday at 2100hrs on 145.230 The net is a forum type net for Public Safety subjects. All Amateurs are welcome.

Any input for the net should be sent to net managers: KA1TTG Bob Ankenbauer (Somerville Ma PD) at or on packet to N1GJO Tom Mc Laughlin (Newton FD) at N1GJO@KA1TUZ.FN42JH.MA.USA.NA

73 Dick

FCC Issued Call Sign Update

The following is a list of the FCC's most recently issued callsigns for District 1 (NE) as of February 5, 1998.

++ NOTE: All calls in this group have been assigned; calls will now be assigned in the Novice group.

Several Hundred Boston Area Hams Could Be Reading Your Ad Right Now

Commercial advertising in the newsletter provides important services to our members. Besides bringing income to defray the newsletter production costs, you can learn about and patronize those who support us.

We limit the ads to electronics related businesses and to professional ads from members. Advertisers can display a business card size (3.5 x 2 inches) space for $10.00 per month or $48.00 for the same ad for six consecutive months. If camera ready copy is not provided, there may be an additional charge.

However, you play a part. Your effort as a member is needed to present the advantages to advertisers. Businesses and professionals can reach our circulation of over 300 in Greater Boston. Show your copy of this newsletter to businesses that should be looking for our kind of readers. For more information, contact Paul Carter at, or Treasurer Jim Clogher via the club PO box.

Future Meeting Dates
(Third Wednesdays at 7:30 pm)
Future Exam Dates
(Second Mondays at 7:00 pm)
  • 18 March 1998
  • 15 April 1998
  • 20 May 1998
  • 17 June 1998
  • 15 July 1998
  • 19 August 1998
  • 9 March 1998
  • 13 April 1998
  • 18 May 1998
  • 8 June 1998
  • 13 July 1998
  • 10 August 1998
Meetings are at the Volpe Transportation Center,
55 Broadway, Cambridge
Exams are at the Pierce school,
50 School Street, Brookline
Free parking and T access available at both locations

Catch Us On The Internet!

The Boston Amateur Radio Club has a web page at Here you can find some of the latest BARC news, sample exams, maps to our meetings and VE sessions, links to other radio clubs, and a club roster (only names, callsigns, and e-mail addresses are on-line). If you have any suggestions, please let me know at

We also run an FTP site at under pub/hamradio. We've got a mirror of the ARRL infoserver, BARC documents, ham radio software, and a huge mods archive. The FTP site is maintained by Cheyenne Greatorex, Contact him if you have any comments.

We also run a club e-mail list. To subscribe, send a message to with the body (the subject is ignored)

subscribe barc-list

The welcome message will list the other lists that we have over at Netcom. (Yes, I know it isn't on the radio. It is, however, an additional resource for getting in touch with other hams around the world...)


BARC VE Session

The Boston Amateur Radio Club holds its monthly VE session on the second Monday of each month. The next session will be on Monday, March 9th. It will be held at the Pierce School at 50 School Street in Brookline, Room 110 next to the cafeteria. The session begins at 7 pm. There is a free parking garage at the circular driveway. If driving, enter School Street from the Washington street side (opposite 394 Washington). Check this map for more info.

For those traveling via public transportation, take the 'D' branch of the Green Line to the Brookline Village stop and walk down Harvard street to School Street, or take the 66 bus and get off at School Street. Talkin on 145.23.

We give all exams (Novice thru Extra, CW and written), and you don't need to pre- register. Please bring the following with you:

FCC Form 610 will be provided.

For further information, contact Bob Wondolowski N1KDA Tel: (508) 865 5822 or

The BARC Business Meeting

Read the February Business Meeting minutes.

The Boston Amateur Radio Club holds its monthly business meeting on the first Wednesday of each month. The next one will be on Wednesday, March 4th. They are held in the food court of the Lechmere Galleria Mall in Cambridge. We meet at 6:30pm in the lower level, down by the windows facing the lagoon.

This is where the real business of BARC is conducted. If you have any suggestions, questions, or comments, this is where to bring them. Everyone is welcome (and encouraged) to join us at this meeting.

Net Volunteers Needed

The Eastern Massachusetts 2M Traffic Net , the Heavy Hitters' Traffic Net, and the BARC Club Net are always in need of volunteers to act as Net Control Station. This is excellent practice for emergency communications, and also an opportunity to sharpen your operating skills among a friendly group of people. For further information please contact Mike Ardai N1IST.

Here's the preable for the BARC Net.

Here's a listing of Eastern Mass. Nets.

BARC Officers and Staff
PresidentMichael Ardai N1IST (617) 254 3420   n1ist@k1ugm
Vice PresidentDick Doherty KA1TUZ (617) 969 4880   ka1tuz@ka1tuz
SecretaryEd Hennessy N1PBA (617) 391 8257  n1pba@ka1tuz
TreasurerJim Clogher N1ICN n1icn@ka1tuz
VE (Exam) TeamBob Wondolowski N1KDA (508) 865 5822
MembershipArthur Ashley N1NHZ (617) 661 2988
 Patricia Allen KE1GD
Public ServicesBob Salow WA1IDA (508) 650 9440   wa1ida@wa1phy
Newsletter EditorPaul Carter N1TMF (617) 232 6982
The fine print
The Boston Amateur Radio Club is a non-commercial association of persons interested in the Amateur Radio Service. The Club is organized for the promoting of interest in Amateur Radio communication and education; for the establishment of emergency communications in the event of disasters or other emergencies; for the advancement of the radio art and the public welfare; for the representation of the radio amateur in legislative and regulatory matters, and for the maintenance of collegiality and a high standard of conduct.

The Club is open to all persons interested in Amateur Radio without regard to race, color, religion, creed, national origin, gender, disability, or sexual preference. Our General and Executive meeting locations are handicap accessible. Other meeting and activity locations may be handicap accessible by arrangement.

The club is an ARRL-affiliated Special Service Club, and is a member of the Council of Eastern Massachusetts Amateur Radio Clubs (CEMARC) and the New England Spectrum Management Council (NESMC). The Club is a participant in Partnerships Advancing Technical Hobbies Which Attract Youth to Science (PATHWAYS). The Club is also an assoiciate member of the Courage Handi-Hams system.

The SPARC is published monthly by the Boston Amateur Radio Club. The design and content are Copyright 1997, all rights reserved. Permission is hereby granted to reprint or distribute by electronic or other means any material herein, provided this publication and the issue date are credited. Such permission is limited to use for non-commercial purposes for the benefit of the Amateur Radio community. Permission for other purposes must be obtained in writing.